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No, I'm not wrong

"No, I'm not wrong" Continued...

the federal government pushed Christianity on Native American tribes until early in the 20th century. Native children were removed from their families in elementary school and sent away to board schools, sometimes run by church groups. They were forbidden to speak their language or follow their native customs. Some recall harsh punishments if the rules were violated. Christian Native Americans agree that the treatment was demeaning and offensive.[lxxxiii]

Throckmorton sees Christian missionary work among native peoples as atrocity-filled—something that broke up families, coerced faith and western culture, and harshly punished those who committed even minor violations of the missionaries’ inflexible pharisaical beliefs. Yet the Moravians clearly state that their missionaries had long before learned that “nothing is effected with Indians by force or constraint,”[lxxxiv] and rather than requiring native peoples to conform to English beliefs and practices, Moravians acknowledged that their missionaries “lived and dressed in the Indian manner, so that in travelling they were often taken for Indians.”[lxxxv]

A further indication of Throckmorton’s generally negative view of Christian Anglo/Indian relations is his claim that it was threats from the white man that kept the Christian Delaware from returning to the lands reserved for them by Congress.[lxxxvi] But the Moravians who lived and worked with those Delaware avow otherwise, succinctly reporting:

The Congress of the United States had ordered that the district belonging to the three congregations on the Muskingum should be restored to them … and the people were desirous to return; but the [unChristian] Delaware and other pagan Indians positively declared that they would not suffer [allow] it.[lxxxvii]

[T]he Congress of the United States, after the conclusion of the war with Great Britain, had given express orders that the territory on the Muskingum formerly inhabited by the Christian Indians should be reserved for them. … Various impediments, however, as yet prevented their return. The savages were still determined to carry on the war against the United States, and a great part of the Delawares and Shawanose declared their intention to oppose the return of the Christian Indians.[lxxxviii]

[A] tract of land was procured and a settlement was commenced. … Here parts of the scattered congregation gradually collected, and the village and adjoining fields began to be admired, when the hostility of the surrounding Indians compelled them to abandon it in 1786.[lxxxix]

But the hostility of their pagan neighbors would not allow the [Delaware] pilgrims to rest in their present location. They left it in 1787. …[xc]

The greatest impediment to the return of the Christian Delaware was not Anglo but rather Indian opposition. That opposition was very real; and on multiple occasions, known Indian converts were targeted, hurt, or killed by their unconverted brethren.[xci]

I am not arguing that the national government’s policy toward native people has always been perfect. To the contrary, some policies and actions have been undeniably atrocious. But the policies under consideration here were aimed at spreading the gospel, and in many instances they were successful. Even if one believes as a matter of principle that the government should not engage in such activities, Christians still should rejoice at these successes.

In summary, Throckmorton’s analysis of the relations between Congress, missionaries, and native peoples is typical of today’s separationist view under which it is inconceivable that there could have ever been a time wherein the federal government would have acted differently on religion than the secularist manner in which it does today. Throckmorton thus measures historical actions by his modern beliefs and experience on the subject—an academic malpractice defined in The Jefferson Lies as “Modernism,” which interprets historical events and persons as if they occurred and lived today rather than in the past, thus resulting in a misrepresentation of historical beliefs and events.[xcii]

Jefferson wanted a greater separation between church and state than many Founders, but even he did not advocate the complete and utter separation favored by contemporary organizations such as the ACLU. Given the many jurists, academics, and popular authors who claim that he did, it is a shame that Throckmorton misses this larger argument and instead strains at gnats.

Jefferson and a Bible for the use of Indians

Although later in life Thomas Jefferson did not believe that the full Bible was the inspired, infallible word of God, that does not mean that he thought it unimportant. In Chapter 3 of The Jefferson Lies, I discuss the two separate and distinct abridgements of the Bible made by the sage of Monticello. The first was clearly intended for use by Native Americans, the second was for his own personal study. Surprisingly, Throckmorton strongly objects to the commonly accepted view that Jefferson intended the 1804 Bible to be used by Native Americans. He writes that:

____________

ENDNOTES

[i] Although the work is co-authored, Throckmorton seems to be the main critic as indicated by his extensive blogging about me. As such, throughout this essay I refer to him as the author of Getting Jefferson Right.

[ii] Marvin Olasky, “A message to WORLD readers on the David Barton controversy,” World Magazine, August 16, 2012 (at: http://www.worldmag.com/2012/08/a_message_to_world_readers_on_the_david_barton_controversy).

[iii] Thomas Kidd, “The David Barton Controversy,” World Magazine, August 25, 2012 (at: http://www.worldmag.com/2012/08/the_david_barton_controversy).

[iv] Thomas Kidd, “Lost confidence,” World Magazine, August 9, 2012 (at: http://www.worldmag.com/2012/08/lost_confidence).

[v] David Barton, “Statement: David Barton on The Jefferson Lies,” WallBuilders, August 10, 2012 (at: http://www.wallbuilders.com/LIBissuesArticles.asp?id=120472).

[vi] “HarperCollins Completes Nelson Purchase,” Publishers Weekly, July 11, 2012 (at: http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/industry-deals/article/52956-harpercollins-completes-nelson-purchase.html).

[vii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 19.

[viii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 19.

[ix] Warren Throckmorton, “David Barton’s Capitol Tour: Did Thomas Jefferson Spend Federal Funds to Evangelize the Kaskaskia Indians?,” Warren Throckmorton, August 6, 2012 (at: http://wthrockmorton.com/2012/08/06/david-bartons-capitol-tour-did-thomas-jefferson-spend-federal-funds-to-evangelize-the-kaskaskia-indians/).

[x] Henry A. Kissenger, et al., “The Republican case for ratifying New START,” Washington Post, December 2, 2010 (at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/12/01/AR2010120104598.html).

[xi] Office of the Historian, “The Annexation of Texas, The Mexican-American War, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1845-1848,” U. S. Department of State (at: http://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/TexasAnnexation) (accessed October 23, 2012).

[xii] Office of the Historian, “The Annexation of Texas, The Mexican-American War, and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1845-1848,” U. S. Department of State (at: http://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/TexasAnnexation) (accessed October 23, 2012).

[xiii] “The Panama Canal Treaties: Jimmy Carter,” Bill of Rights Institute (at: http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educator-resources/lessons-plans/presidents/panama-canal/) (accessed October 23, 2012).

[xiv] George Bunn, “The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: History and Current Problems,” Arms Control Association (at: http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2003_12/Bunn) (accessed on October 23, 2012).

[xv] Joe Southerland, “The new Start Treaty Negotiation: Implications for American Soft Power,” Academia.edu, April 13, 2011 (at: http://wustl.academia.edu/JosephSutherland/Papers/1766411/The_New_START_Treaty_Negotiation_Implications_for_American_Soft_Power).

[xvi] American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive of the Congress of the United States: Indian Affairs, Walter Lowrie & Matthew St. Claire Clarke, editors (Washington, D. C.: Gales and Seaton 1832), Vol. I, p. 687, “The Kaskaskia and Other Tribes,” treaty signed August 13, 1803; reported by Thomas Jefferson to the Senate on October 31, 1803.

[xvii] See, for example, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Albert Ellery Bergh, editor (Washington, D. C., The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1907), Vol. X, pp. 368-373, to Governor William H. Harrison on February 27, 1803; Thomas Jefferson, “The Papers of Thomas Jefferson,” Library of Congress, to William H. Harrison on February 28, 1803 (at: http://memory.loc.gov/master/mss/mtj/mtj1/027/1100/1119.jpg).

[xviii] See, for example, Governors Messages and Letters. Messages and Letters of William Henry Harrison, Logan Esarey editor (Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Commission, 1922), Vol. I, pp. 36-37, William Henry Harrison to Secretary of State [James Madison] on January 19, 1802; Vol. I, p. 43, William Henry Harrison to Secretary of War [Henry Dearborn] on February 26, 1802.

[xix] American Mercury (Hartford newspaper), March 1, 1804, p. 2.

[xx] Thomas Jefferson, The Works of Thomas Jefferson, Paul Leicester Ford, editor (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1905), Vol. XI, p. 419, to Edward Coles on August 25, 1814. See also E. B. Washburne, Sketch of Edward Coles (Chicago: Jansen, McClurg & Company, 1882), p. 27, to Edward Coles on August 25, 1814.

[xxi] The Statues at Large; Being A Collection of all the Laws of Virginia from the First Session of the Legislature in the year 1619, William Waller Hening, editor (Richmond: J. & G. Cochran, 1821), Vol. IX, pp. 184-187, “An act for the appointment of naval officers and ascertain their fees” October, 1776; pp. 277-279, “An act for regulating and disciplining the Militia,” May, 1777; pp. 471-472, “An act for preventing the farther importation of Slaves,” October, 1778; (1822), Vol. X, p. 113, “An act for the manumission of a certain slave,” May, 1779; p. 211, “An act for manumission of certain Slaves,” October, 1779; pp. 307-308, “An act to authorize the citizens of South Carolina and Georgia to remove their slaves into this state,” May, 1780; p. 371, “An act for restoring certain slaves to George Harmer,” October, 1780; p. 372, “An act for the manumission of certain Slaves,” October, 1780; (1823), Vol. XI, pp. 23-25, “An act for the recovery of slaves, horses, and other property, lost during the war,” May, 1782; pp. 39-40, “An act to authorize the manumission of slaves,” May, 1782; p. 59, “An act concerning Slaves,” May, 1782; pp. 308-309, “An act directing the emancipation of certain slaves who have served as soldiers in this state, and for the emancipation of the slave Aberdeen,” October, 1783; p. 435, “An act to amend and reduce the several acts for appropriating the public revenue, into one act,” October, 1784; (1823), Vol. XII, pp. 182-183, “An act concerning slaves,” October, 1785; p. 145, “An act concerning wills,” October, 1785; pp. 192-193, “An act for apprehending and securing runaways,” October, 1785; p. 327, “An act to amend and condense into one act, the several laws for appropriating the public revenue,” October, 1786; p. 345, “An act directing the method of trying Slaves charged with treason or felony,” October, 1786; pp. 380-381, “An act to emancipate James, a negro slave, the property of William Armistead, gentleman,” October, 1786; pp. 505-506, “An act to explain and amend the acts for preventing fraudulent gifts of slaves,” passed December 31, 1787; pp. 613-616, “An act to confirm the freedom of certain negroes late the property of Chareles Moorman, deceased,” passed December 12, 1787; p. 681, “An act to repeal part of an act, directing the trial of slaves committing capital crimes, and for the more effectual punishing conspiracies and insurrections of them, and for the better government of negroes, mulattoes, or Indians, bond or free,” passed November 21, 1788; p. 713-714, “An act concerning the importation of slaves, into the district of Kentucky,” passed December 26, 1788; (1823), Vol. XIII, p. 32, “An act concerning the Benefit of Clergy,” passed November 27, 1789, Sec. 8; pp. 104-105, “An act appointing trustees for the purpose of purchasing certain slaves for the use and benefit of the children of James Bullock, deceased,” passed December 1, 1789; pp. 136-138, “An act for the better securing certain debts within mentioned, due and owing to the Commonwealth,” passed December 25, 1790; p. 619, “An act for the manumission of a Negro named Saul,” passed November 13, 1792; pp. 619-620, “An act authorizing the emancipation of Abraham, a Negro Slave, late the property of Benjamin Temple,” passed November 16, 1792; etc.; and The Revised Code of the Laws of Virginia (Ritchie, 1819), Vol. I, pp. 421-444, “C. 111. An act reducing into one, the several acts concerning Slaves, Free Negroes and Mulattoes,” passed March 2, 1819, footnotes for this act provide listing of law relating to slavery passed in the state and mention laws from 1794, 1797, 1803 and many others.

[xxii] The Revised Code of the Laws of Virginia (Ritchie, 1819), Vol. I, p. 434, “An Act Reducing into One, the Several Acts Concerning Slaves, Free Negroes and Mulattoes,” 1792.

[xxiii] Dumas Malone, Jefferson and His Time: The Sage of Monticello (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1981), Vol. Six, p. 511, Appendix II “Jefferson’s Financial Affairs.”

[xxiv] Malone, Jefferson and His Time, Vol. Six, p. 489.

[xxv] Andrew Levy, The First Emancipator: The Forgotten Story of Robert Carter the Founding Father Who Freed His Slaves [e-book] (New York: Random House, 2005) “Part II: Charter V: Deed of Gift [1789-1804].” See also “Robert “Councilor” Carter III,” Nomini Hall (at: http://rllint.people.wm.edu/robert.html) (accessed on August 30, 2012); “Robert Carter (1728-1804),” Encyclopedia Virginia, 2010 (at: http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Carter_Robert_1728-1804); Robert B. Semple, A History of the Rise and Progress of the Baptists in Virginia (Richmond: Pitt & Dickinson Publishers, 1894), pp. 178-179.

[xxvi] E. B. Washburne, Sketch of Edward Coles (Chicago: Jansen, McClurg & Company, 1882), p. 24, to Thomas Jefferson on July 31, 1814.

[xxvii] The Statues at Large; Being A Collection of all the Laws of Virginia, Hening (1823), Vol. XII, pp. 380-381, “An act to emancipate James, a negro slave, the property of William Armistead, gentleman,” October, 1786.

[xxviii] Barton, The Jefferson Lies, p. 135.

[xxix] Rev. John Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gospel among the Heathen, From Their Commencement to the Year 1817 (London: Printed for the Author, 1827), p. 143.

[xxx] Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, pp. 179-180.

[xxxi] Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, pp. 180-181.

[xxxii] Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, p. 186.

[xxxiii] Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, pp. 186-187. For further discussion, see George Henry Loskiel, History of the Mission of the United Brethren Among the Indians in North America. In Three Parts (London: The Brethren’s Society, 1794); John Hecttenealder, A Narrative of the Mission of the United Brethren among the Delaware and Mohigan Indians, &c. by John Hecttenealder, who was many years in the service of that Mission (Philadelphia, 1820); and Rev. John Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gospel Among the Heathen, From Their Commencement to the Year 1817 (Dublin: R. Napper, 1818; reprinted London, 1827).

[xxxiv] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 12

[xxxv] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 11.

[xxxvi] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 17.

[xxxvii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 17.

[xxxviii] Journals of the Continental Congress (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1905), Vol. III, pp. 350-351, November 11, 1775.

[xxxix] Journals of the Continental Congress (1907), Vol. VII, pp. 72-73, January 30, 1777.

[xl] Journals of the Continental Congress (1909), Vol. XV, pp. 1181-1182, October 16, 1779.

[xli] Journals of the Continental Congress (1928), Vol. XXVII, pp. 659-660, December 3, 1784.

[xlii] Journals of the Continental Congress (1905), Vol. III, pp. 433-434, December 16, 1775.

[xliii] Journals of the Continental Congress (1906), Vol. IV, p. 111, February 5, 1776.

[xliv] Journals of the Continental Congress (1906), Vol. IV, p. 111, February 5, 1776.

[xlv] Journals of the Continental Congress (1906), Vol. IV, p. 267, April 10, 1776; (1904), Vol. VII, p. 72, January 30, 1777; (1909), Vol. XV, pp. 1181-1182, October 16, 1779; (1933), Vol. XXVIII, pp. 306-307, April 26, 1785; Vol. XXVIII, p. 399, May 27, 1785; Vol. XXVIII, pp. 407-408, 417, June 1 & 2, 1785; (1937); etc.

[xlvi] Journals of the Continental Congress (1906), Vol. IV, p. 267, April 10, 1776.

[xlvii] George Washington, The Writings of George Washington, John C. Fitzpatrick, editor (Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1936), Vol. XV, p. 55, from his speech to the Delaware Indian Chiefs on May 12, 1779. Some object that this speech was written by an aide. This may be the case, but aides routinely draft letters, speeches, addresses, etc. This does not keep historians from attributing these texts to the presidents who send or deliver them. We speak, for instance, of George Washington’s Farewell Address, even though Alexander Hamilton played a major role in drafting it.

[xlviii] Washington, Writings (1937), Vol. XVII, p. 283, to the President of Congress on December 17, 1779.

[xlix] Journals of the Continental Congress (1933), Vol. XXVIII, p. 381, May 20, 1785.

[l] Journals of the Continental Congress (1933), Vol. XXVIII, p. 399, May 27, 1785.

[li] Journals of the Continental Congress (1906), Vol. V, p. 785, September 19, 1776.

[lii] John Hancock, “A Brief,” dated June 20, 1788, from an original broadside in our possession (at: http://www.wallbuilders.com/LIBissuesArticles.asp?id=132083).

[liii] American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive of the Congress of the United States, Walter Lowrie & Matthew St. Claire Clarke, editors (Washington, D. C.: Gales and Seaton 1832), Vol. IV, p. 546, “A Treaty between the United States of America and the Oneida, Tuscarora, and Stockbridge Indians, dwelling in the country of the Oneidas,” treaty done on December 2, 1794. See also Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America (Washington: Duff Green, 1828), Vol. I, p. 170, January 9, 1795.

[liv] American State Papers (1832), Vol. IV, p. 687, “The Kaskaskia and Other Tribes,” treaty signed August 13, 1803; reported by Thomas Jefferson to the Senate on October 31, 1803.

[lv] See, for example, Debates and Proceedings (Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1851), Vol. 11, p. 1332, “An Act in Addition to an Act, Entitled, ‘An Act in Addition to an Act Regulating the Grants of Land Appropriated for Military Services, and for the Society of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gospel Among the Heathen’,” April 26, 1802; Debates and Proceedings (1851), Vol. 12, p. 1602, “An Act to Revive and Continue in Force An Act in Addition to an Act, Entitled, ‘An Act in Addition to an Act Regulating the Grants of Land Appropriated for Military Services, and for the Society of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gospel Among the Heathen,’ and for Other Purposes,” March 3, 1803; Debates and Proceedings (1852), Vol. 13, p. 1279, “An Act Granting Further Time for Locating Military Land Warrants, and for Other Purposes,” March 19, 1804.

[lvi] The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, Richard Peters, editor (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1846), Vol. II, p. 166, Art. 16, “Articles of a Treaty Made and Concluded at the foot of the Rapids of the Miami of Lake Erie,” treaty dated September 29, 1817, proclamation for the treaty dated January 4, 1819.

[lvii] American State Papers (1834), Vol. II, p. 589, Art. 10, “Treaty with the Great and Little Osages,” treaty dated June 2, 1825, reported by John Quincy Adams to the Senate on December 14, 1825.

[lviii] Report of the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1887 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1887), Vol. II, 976, Rev. Charles W. Shelton quoting President Cleveland; Charles B. Galloway, Christianity and the American Commonwealth (Nashville: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, 1898), p. 177.

[lix] Theodore Roosevelt, “Proclamation 526 – Opening of Sioux Lands of the Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota,” The American Presidency Project, May 13, 1904 (at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=69471).

[lx] Theodore Roosevelt, “Proclamation 521 – Disposal of Sioux Lands,” The American Presidency Project, March 30, 1904 (at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=69465).

[lxi] Theodore Roosevelt, “Executive Order – Cancellation of Lands Set Apart in Utah,” The American Presidency Project, February 5, 1906 (at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=76705).

[lxii] See, for example, Letters of Delegates to Congress, Paul H. Smith, editor (Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress, 1994), Vol. 21, pp. 496-497, from Charles Thomson to John Ettwein on April 7, 1784; (1996), Vol. 24, pp. 404-405, from Charles Thomson to John Ettwein on August 15, 1787; (1998), Vol. 25, pp. 46-47, from Charles Thomson to Arthur St. Clair on April 11, 1788; Benjamin Franklin, The Works of Benjamin Franklin, Jared Sparks, editor (Boston: Tappan & Whittemore, 1840), Vol. IX, pp. 386-387, to Robert Livingston on August 12, 1782.

[lxiii] Letters of Delegates to Congress (1991) Vol. 18, pp. 448-449n, letter from Charles Thomson to William Moore on April 9, 1782.

[lxiv] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 17.

[lxv] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 15.

[lxvi] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 11.

[lxvii] Journals of the Continental Congress (1937), Vol. XXXIV, pp. 485-487, September 3, 1788.

[lxviii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 11.

[lxix] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 12.

[lxx] See, for example, Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, p. 201, passim.

[lxxi] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 16.

[lxxii] See, for example, Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, pp. 202, 214, etc.

[lxxiii] Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, p. 202.

[lxxiv] Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, pp. 208-209.

[lxxv] Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, p. 201

[lxxvi] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 15.

[lxxvii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 16.

[lxxviii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 19.

[lxxix] American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive of the Congress of the United States (1832), Vol. IV, p. 687, “The Kaskaskia and Other Tribes,” treaty signed August 13, 1803; reported by Thomas Jefferson to the Senate on October 31, 1803.

[lxxx] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 21.

[lxxxi] “Catholic Indian Missions of the United States,” Catholic Encyclopedia (at: http://www.catholic.com/magazine/articles/the-church-and-the-native-americans) (accessed October 26, 2012); “Secular Clergy,” Catholic Encyclopedia (at: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10384a.htm; http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07660a.htm; and others) (accessed October 26, 2012).

[lxxxii] Governors Messages and Letters (1922), Vol. I, p. 45, William Henry Harrison to Secretary of War [Henry Dearborn] on February 26, 1802.

[lxxxiii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 18.

[lxxxiv] Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, p. 201.

[lxxxv] Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, p. 128.

[lxxxvi] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 9.

[lxxxvii] History of American Mission to the Heathen, From Their Commencement to the Present Time (Worcester: Spooner & Howland, 1840), p. 21.

[lxxxviii] Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, p. 189.

[lxxxix] History of American Mission (1840), p. 21.

[xc] History of American Mission (1840), p. 21.

[xci] See, for example, Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, pp. 209-213; p. 139, “Their external troubles, however, did not yet terminate. They had not only a kind of tax imposed upon them, to show their dependence on the Iroquois , but the following very singular message was sent them: “The great head, i.e. the Council in Onondago, speak the truth and lie not: they rejoice that some of the believing Indians have moved to Wayomik, but now they lift up the remaining Mahikans and Delawares, and set them down also in Wayomik; for there a fire is kindled for them, and there they may plant and think on God: but if they will not hear, the great head will come and clean their ears with a red-hot iron (meaning they would set their houses on fire) and shoot them through the head with musquet-balls.”

[xcii] Barton, The Jefferson Lies, p. xx.

[xciii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 127.

[xciv] Henry S. Randall, The Life of Thomas Jefferson (New York: Derby & Jackson, 1858), Vol. III, p. 654.

[xcv] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 71.

[xcvi] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 72.

[xcvii] See also Billy Hallowell, “David Barton vs. His Critics: The Blaze’s Extensive Analysis of Their Claims & Thomas Jefferson’s Faith,” The Blaze, August 15, 2012 (at: http://www.theblaze.com/stories/david-barton-vs-his-critics-theblazes-extensive-analysis-of-their-claims-thomas-jeffersons-faith/).

[xcviii] Matthew 5:1-10, 19-48; Matthew 6:1-34; Matthew 7:1-29; Matthew 8:1, 11; Matthew 10:5-31, [34-41], 42; Matthew 11:[2-9], 28-30; Matthew 12:1-5, 11-12, 33-37, 41-44, 46-50; Matthew 13:1-9, 18-33, [34], 36-43, 44, [45-51], 52; Matthew 15:1-20; Matthew 18:1-6, 10-11, [12-14], 15-17; Matthew 19:3-24, 29-30; Matthew 20:1-16; Matthew 21:28-31, 33-41; Matthew 22:1-32, 35-40; Matthew 23:1-33; Matthew 25:1-46; Matthew 26:49-50, 55, 57, 59-62; Matthew 27:[1], 26, 46; [Matthew 36:55]; Mark 2:15-17; Mark 14:[61-62], 63-64; Luke 2:1-7, 21-22, 39-49, 51-52; Luke 3:23-38; [Luke 6:12-16]; Luke 7:36-47; Luke 10:25-37; Luke 11:37-48, 52; Luke 12:13-21, 35-48; Luke 13:1-9; Luke 14:1-14, [25], 26-33; Luke 15:[1-2], 32; Luke 16:1-13, 19-31; Luke 17:7-10; Luke 18:1-8; Luke 22:24-27, 67-68, 70; Luke 23:1-25, 33-34; John 4:24; John 8:1-11; John 10:1-16; John 12:24-25; John 13:4-17, 34-35; John 18:1-5, 8, 12, 19-23, 36; and John 19:16, [17], 25-30. (The verses in brackets are those excluded in earlier works but included in subsequent reconstructions of Jefferson’s 1804 work. For more on this, see the section on Throckmorton, Jefferson, and miracles.)

[xcix] Matthew 3:4-6, 13; Matthew 4:12; Matthew 5:1-47; Matthew 6:1-34; Matthew 7:1-20, 24-29; Matthew 8:1; Matthew 9:36; Matthew 10: 5-6, 9-18, 23, 26-31; Matthew 11:28-30; Matthew 12:1-5, 9-12, 14-15, 35-37; Matthew 13:1-9, 18-30, 36-57; Matthew 18:1-4, 7-9, 12-17, 21-35; Matthew 19:1-26; Matthew 20:1-16; Matthew 21:1-3, 6-8, 10, 17, 28-31, 33, 45, 46; Matthew 22:1-33, 40; Matthew 23:1-33; Matthew 24:1-2, 16-21, 29, 32, 33, 36-51; Matthew 25:1-46; Matthew 26:14-20, 31, 33, 35-45, 48-52, 55-57, 75; Matthew 27:3-8, 13, 15-23, 26-27, 29-31, 39-43, 46-50, 55-56, 60; Mark 1:4, 21-22; Mark 2:15-17, 27; Mark 3:31-35; Mark 4:10, 21-23, 26-34; Mark 6:6-7, 12, 30, 17-28; Mark 7:1-5, 14-24; Mark 11:12, 15-19, 27; Mark 12:1-9, 28-31, 32-33, 41-44; Mark 14:1-8, 51-52, 53, 55-61, 63-65; Luke 2:1-7, 21, 39-40, 42-48, 51-52; Luke 3:1-2, 23; Luke 5:27-29, 36-38; Luke 6:12-17, 24-26, 34-36, 38; Luke 7:36-46; Luke 9:57-62; Luke 10:1-8, 10-12, 25-42; Luke 11:1-13, 37-46, 52-54; Luke 12:1-7, 13-48, 54-59; Luke 13:1-9; Luke 14:1-24, 28-32; Luke 15:1-32; Luke 16:1-15, 18-31; Luke 17:1-4, 7-10, 20, 26-36; Luke 18:1-14; Luke 19:1-28; Luke 21:34-36; Luke 22:24-27, 33-34, 67-68, 70; Luke 23:5-16, 26-32, 34, 39-41; John 2:12-16; John 3:22; John 7:1-16, 19-26, 32, 43-53; John 8:1-11; John 9: 1-3; John 10:1-5, 11-14, 16; John 12:19-24; John 13:2, 4-17, 21-26, 31, 34-35; John 18:1-8, 15-18, 19-23, 25-31, 33-38; and John 19:17-27, 31-34, 38-42.

[c] Matthew 5:1-10, 19-47; Matthew 6:1-34; Matthew 7:1-20, 24-29; Matthew 8:1; Matthew 10:5-6, 9-18, 23, 26-31; Matthew 11:28-30; Matthew 12:1-5, 11-12, 35-37; Matthew 13:1-9, 18-30, 36-43, 44, [45-51], 52; Matthew 18:1-4, 7-9, [12-14], 15-17; Matthew 19:3-24; Matthew 20:1-16; Matthew 21:28-31, 33; Matthew 22:1-32, 40; Matthew 23:1-33; Matthew 25:1-46; Matthew 26:49-50, 55, 57; Matthew 27:26, 46; Mark 2:15-17; Mark 14:[61], 63-64; Luke 2:1-7, 21, 39-40, 42-48, 51-52; Luke 3:23; [Luke 6:12-16]; Luke 7:36-46; Luke 10:25-37; Luke 11:37-46, 52; Luke 12:13-21, 35-48; Luke 13:1-9; Luke 14:1-14, 28-32; Luke 15:[1-2], 32; Luke 16:1-13, 19-31; Luke 17:7-10; Luke 18:1-8; Luke 22:24-27, 67-68, 70; Luke 23:5-16, 34; John 8:1-11; John 10:1-5, 11-14, 16; John 12:24; John 13:4-17, 34-35; John 18:1-5, 8, 12, 19-23, 36; and John 19:[17], 25-27. (The verses in brackets are those excluded in earlier works but included in subsequent reconstructions of Jefferson’s 1804 work. For more on this, see the section on Throckmorton, Jefferson, and miracles.)

[ci] Matthew 3:4-6, 13; Matthew 4:12; Matthew 5:11-18; Matthew 9:36; Matthew 12:9-10, 14-15; Matthew 13:53-57; Matthew 18: 7-9, 21-35; Matthew 19:1-2, 25; Matthew 23:1-3, 6-8, 10, 17, 45, 46; Matthew 22:33; Matthew 24:1-2, 16-21, 29, 32, 33, 36-51; Matthew 26:14-20, 31, 33, 35-45, 48, 51-52, 56, 75; Matthew 27:3-8, 13, 15-23, 27, 29-31, 39-43, 47-50, 55-56, 60; Mark 1:4, 21-22; Mark 2:27; Mark 3:31-35; Mark 4:10, 21-23, 26-34; Mark 6:6-7, 12, 30, 17-28; Mark 7:1-5, 14-24; Mark 11:12, 15-19, 27; Mark 12:1-9, 28-31, 32-33, 41-44; Mark 14:1-8, 51-52, 53, 55-60, 65; Luke 3:1-2; Luke 5:27-29, 36-38; Luke 6:17, 24-26, 34-36, 38; Luke 9:57-62; Luke 10:1-8, 10-12, 38-42; Luke 11:1-13, 53-54; Luke 12:1-7, 22-34, 54-59; Luke 14:15-24; Luke 15:3-31; Luke 16:14-15, 18; Luke 17:1-4, 20, 26-36; Luke 18:9-14; Luke 19:1-28; Luke 21:34-36; Luke 22:33-34; Luke 23:26-32, 39-41; John 2:12-16; John 3:22; John 7:1-16, 19-26, 32, 43-53; John 9: 1-3; John 12:19-23; John 13:2, 21-26, 31; John 18:6-7, 15-18, 25-31, 33-35; and John 19:18-27, 31-34, 38-42.

[cii] Matthew 5:48; Matthew 7:21-23; Matthew 8:11; Matthew 10:7-8, 19-22, 24-31, [34-41], 42; Matthew 11:[2-9]; Matthew 12:41-44, 46-50; Matthew 13:33, [34], 35; Matthew 15:1-20; Matthew 18:5-6, 10-11; Matthew 19:27-30; Matthew 23:32-41; Matthew 22:35-39; Matthew 26:59-62; Matthew 27: [1]; [Matthew 36:55]; Mark 14:[62]; Luke 2:22, 41-49; Luke 3:24-38; Luke 7:47; Luke 11:47-48; Luke 14:[25], 26-27, 33; Luke 23:1-4, 17-25, 33; John 4:24; John 10:6-10, 15; John 12:25; and John 19:16, 30. (The verses in brackets are those excluded in earlier works but included in subsequent reconstructions of Jefferson’s 1804 work. For more on this, see the section on Throckmorton, Jefferson, and miracles.)

[ciii] Warren Throckmorton and Michael Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right: Fact Checking Claims About Our Third President [e-book] (Grove City, PA: Warren Throckmorton, 2012), “Was Jefferson’s abridgment of the Gospels (The Jefferson Bible) composed of only the words of Jesus – the red letters?”.

[civ] Jefferson, Writings (1903), Vol. XIII, p. 160, to John Adams on June 11, 1812.

[cv] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 70.

[cvi] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 72.

[cvii] Randall, Life of Thomas Jefferson (1858), Vol. III, p. 452, n.

[cviii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, 72.

[cix] Thomas Jefferson, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, H. A. Washington, editor (Washington, D. C.: Taylor & Maury, 1854), Vol. VIII, p. 5, “Inauguration Address,” March 4, 1801. See also Daniel L. Dreisbach and Mark David Hall, The Sacred Rights of Conscience (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund Press, 2009), 452.

[cx] Barton, The Jefferson Lies, 73.

[cxi] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 79.

[cxii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 80.

[cxiii]Thomas Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Second Series: Jefferson’s Extracts from the Gospels. “The Philosophy of Jesus” and “The Life and Morals of Jesus,” Dickinson W. Adams, editor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983), p. 50, “The Reconstruction of ‘The Philosophy of Jesus’.”

[cxiv] Jefferson, Papers of Thomas Jefferson Second Series (1983), p. 50, “The Reconstruction of ‘The Philosophy of Jesus’.”

[cxv] Thomas Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Second Series (1983), p. 50, “The Reconstruction of ‘The Philosophy of Jesus’.”

[cxvi] Mark Beliles, Thomas Jefferson’s Abridgement of the Words of Jesus of Nazareth (Charlottesville, VA: Mark Beliles, 1993), pp. 16-17.

[cxvii] Barton, The Jefferson Lies, p. 68.

[cxviii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 66.

[cxix] The Eighth Report of the Bible Society of Philadelphia; Read before the Society, May 1, 1816 (Philadelphia: Printed by Order of the Society; William Fry, Printer, 1816), pp. 44-52.

[cxx] “The Thomas Jefferson Papers,” Library of Congress, Samuel Greenhow to Thomas Jefferson on November 11, 1813 (at: http://memory.loc.gov/master/mss/mtj/mtj1/046/1300/1325.jpg and http://memory.loc.gov/master/mss/mtj/mtj1/046/1300/1326.jpg).

[cxxi] Jefferson, Writings (1904), Vol. XIV, p. 81, to Samuel Greenhow on January 31, 1814.

[cxxii] Address of the Managers of the Bible Society of Virginia to the Public (Richmond: Samuel Pleasants, 1814), p. 7, “Constitution of the Bible Society of Virginia,” 1813, Shaw # 30910.

[cxxiii] “The Thomas Jefferson Papers,” Library of Congress, Samuel Greenhow to Thomas Jefferson on February 4, 1814 (at: http://memory.loc.gov/master/mss/mtj/mtj1/047/0200/0248.jpg and http://memory.loc.gov/master/mss/mtj/mtj1/047/0200/0249.jpg).

[cxxiv] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 63.

[cxxv] Address of the Managers of the Bible Society of Virginia to the Public (1814), p. 8, “Constitution of the Bible Society of Virginia,” 1813, Shaw # 30910.

[cxxvi] The First Report of the Bible Society Established at Philadelphia (Philadelphia: Fry and Kammerer, 1809), p. 31, “The Bible Society. The Constitution of Which Shall Be As Follows.”

[cxxvii] A Circular Address from the Bible Society of Massachusetts. With the Constitution, List Officers, Trustees, & c. (Boston: J. Belcher, 1809), p. 19, “Constitution.”

[cxxviii] The First Report of the Managers of the New-Jersey Bible Society, Read Before the Society at Their Annual Meeting at Princeton, October 2, 1810: With An Appendix, Containing the Constitution, as Amended by the Society, a List of the Name of Members, Contributors & C. (Trenton: George Sherman, 1810), p. 8, “Constitution of the New Jersey Bible Society, as amended and adopted at Princeton, October 2d, 1810.”

[cxxix] Rev. Edwin J. Aiken, The First Hundred Years of the New Hampshire Bible Society: 1812-1912 (Concord: Rumford Press, 1912), p. 2, “Constitution of the New Hampshire Bible Society,” 1812.

[cxxx] Report of the Vermont Bible Society, at its Forty-Ninth Anniversary, Held at Montpelier, October 16, 1861 (Montpelier: E. P. Walton, 1861), inside front cover, “Constitution,” 1812.

[cxxxi] William Maxwell, A Memoir of the Rev. John H. Rice (Philadelphia: J. Whetham, 1835), p. 127, letter from Rev. John H. Rice to William Maxwell, April 10, 1816.

[cxxxii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 64.

[cxxxiii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 68.

[cxxxiv] See Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Second Series Jefferson’s Memorandum Books, Accounts with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767-1826, James A. Bear, Jr. and Lucia C. Stanton, editors (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997), Vol. II, p. 837, October 25, 1791, to Rev. Matthew Maury ($75.5); p. 1062, January 4, 1802, to Rev. John Leland ($200); p. 1065, February 8, 1802, to Rev. Eaden ($50); p. 1070, April 7, 1802, to Rev. Parkinson for Baptist meeting house ($50); p. 1070, April 7, 1802, to Rev. Dr. Smith for Princeton ($100); p. 1084, October 20, 1802, to Rev. Baulch ($75); p. 1093, March 2, 1803, to Rev. Chambers for his church ($50); p. 1144, January 15, 1805, to build Presbyterian church ($50); p. 1146, February 17, 1805, to Alexander Smith for a Baptist church ($50); p. 1154, May 15, 1805, towards an Episcopal church ($100); p. 1154, June 3, 1805, for Rev. A McCormick ($50); p. 1177, April 18, 1806, towards a Methodist church ($50); p. 1180, May 20, 1806, for a church in Louisiana ($50); p. 1297, January 31, 1814, to Samuel Greenhow for the Bible Society of Virginia ($50); and p. 1403, March 8, 1824, $285 for building Episcopalian ($200), Presbyterian ($60), and Baptist churches ($25).

[cxxxv] Barton, The Jefferson Lies, p. 68.

[cxxxvi] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. xvi.

[cxxxvii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, pp. 128-135.

[cxxxviii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 129.

[cxxxix] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 130.

[cxl] Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Second Series (1997), Vol. II, p. 1403, March 8, 1824.

[cxli] Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Second Series (1997), Vol. II, p. 1154, May 15, 1805.

[cxlii] Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Second Series (1997), Vol. II, p. 1196, January 6, 1807.

[cxliii] Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Second Series (1997), Vol. II, p. 1177, April 18, 1806.

[cxliv] Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Second Series (1997), Vol. I, p. 1044, June 25, 1801 (a chapel, $25); Vol. II, p. 1068, March 13, 1802 (a black church, $25); Vol. II, p. 1070, April 7, 1802 (Baptist church, $50); Vol. II, p. 1093, March 2, 1803 (a church, $50); Vol. II, p. 1144, January 15, 1805 (a Presbyterian church, $50); Vol. II, p. 1168, November 15, 1805 (a church, $50) Vol. II, p. 1180, May 20, 1806 (a new Louisiana church, $50); Vol. II, p. 1182, June 28, 1806 (Methodist church from April 18, 1806 entry, $50); Vol. II, p. 1807, April 6, 1807 (a church from January 6, 1807 entry, $50); etc.

[cxlv] Noah Webster, An American Dictionary of the English Language (New York: S. Converse, 1828), Vol. II, “subscription,” and “subscriber.”

[cxlvi] See, for example, “Art by the Book,” The Age, July 22, 2006 (at: http://www.theage.com.au/news/arts/art-by-the-book/2006/07/20/1153166519892.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap1); “Phillis Wheatley,” Answers.com (at: http://www.answers.com/topic/phillis-wheatley) (accessed on October 23, 2012); Richard Gray, A History of American Literature (West Sussex: Blackwell Publishers, 2012), p. 155; “A Pair of Albums, Each Titled ‘Sketches of Custome by Coke Smyth,’ Containing Original Watercolours,” AbeBooks.com, book description for John Richard Coke Smyth, A Pair of Albums, Each Titled Sketches of Costume, 1835 (at: http://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=1269415985&searchurl=pics%3Don%26sortby%3D1%26tn%3Dsketches) (accessed on October 23, 2012); “William Hogarth Biography,” Hogarth Biography (at: http://mcdragon19.tripod.com/id58.html) (accessed on October 23, 2012); and many others.

[cxlvii] Matt Villano, “Small Donations in Large Numbers, With Online Help,” The New York Times, March 18, 2010 (at: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/18/arts/artsspecial/18CROWD.html).

[cxlviii] Emily Gould, “Start Me Up,” Technology Review, January/ February 2011 (at: http://www.technologyreview.com/review/422132/start-me-up/).

[cxlix] “Kickstarter Stats,” Kickstarter.com (at: http://www.kickstarter.com/help/stats) (accessed on October 23, 2012).

[cl] Mike Musgrove, “At Play: Kcikstarter is a Web site for the starving artist,” The Washington Post, March 7, 2010 (at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/03/06/AR2010030602077.html).

[cli] See, for example, Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Second Series (1997), Vol. II, p. 814, April 7, 1791, and Vol. II, p. 1376, June 25, 1821.

[clii] Throckmorton and Coulter, Getting Jefferson Right, p. 132.

[cliii] “Thomas Jefferson’s Library,” Library of Congress (at: http://myloc.gov/Exhibitions/jeffersonslibrary/Pages/Overview.aspx) (accessed on October 23, 2012).

[cliv] Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Second Series (1997), Vol. I, p. 689, December 27, 1787; p. 759, June 23, 1790; Vol. II, p. 811, February 19, 1791; p. 814, April 7, 1791; p. 874, July 7, 1792; p. 915, May 12, 1794; p. 979, February 26, 1798; p. 1005, September 6, 1799; p. 1013, January 25, 1800; p. 1016, April 25, 1800; p. 1017, May 5, 1800; p. 1028, October 23, 1800 [additional money towards the book mentioned on September 6, 1799]; p. 1127, May 17, 1804 [additional money towards the book mentioned on February 27, 1798]; p. 1174, February 22, 1806; p. 1181, June 9, 1806; p. 1191, October 13, 1806; p. 1195, December 27, 1807 [2 subscriptions mentioned]; p. 1274, March 15, 1812; p. 1280, June 17, 1812; p. 1319, February 29, 1816; p. 1364, April 15, 1820; p. 1376, June 25, 1821; and p. 1390, October 22, 1822.

[clv] John Thompson Bible: Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Second Series (1997), Vol. II, p. 979, February 26, 1798 and p. 1127, May 17, 1804; William W. Woodward’s Bible with commentary by Thomas Scott: Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Second Series (1997), Vol. II, p. 1195, December 21, 1807; he offered to subscribe to Charles Thomson’s 1808 Bible: Jefferson, Works (1905), Vol. XI, pp. 6-7, to Charles Thomson on January 11, 1808.

[clvi] Jefferson, The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Second Series (1997), Vol. II, p. 1195, December 21, 1807.

[clvii] Jefferson, Works (1905), Vol. XI, p. 6, to Charles Thomson on January 11, 1808.

[clviii] Jefferson, Writings (1903), Vol. XII, p. 217, to Charles Thomson on December 25, 1808.

[clix] Barton, The Jefferson Lies (2012), pp. 173-189.

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